Donald Judd was born in Excelsior Springs, Missouri, in 1928. He attended Columbia University, studying philosophy from 1949 to 1953 and art history with Meyer Schapiro from 1957 to 1962. At the same time that he launched an impressive career as an art critic and polemicist, he began to produce his earliest paintings. He had forged his mature aesthetic by 1965. The Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, organized a retrospective in 1968, and a one-person exhibition was shown at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, in 1975. During his lifetime, Judd received a Guggenheim Fellowship in 1968 and the Skowhegan Medal for Sculpture in 1987. In 1986 a permanent installation of his work opened at the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas. Judd died in New York City in 1994.