Donald Judd was born in Excelsior Springs, Missouri, in 1928. He attended Columbia University, New York, studying philosophy from 1949 to 1953 and art history with Meyer Schapiro from 1957 to 1962. At the same time that he launched an impressive career as an art critic and polemicist, he began to produce his earliest paintings. He had forged his mature aesthetic by 1965. After a retrospective at the Whitney Museum of American Art, New York, in 1968, Judd's most important solo museum exhibition was held at the National Gallery of Canada, Ottawa, in 1975, and he exhibited widely throughout the world. In 1986 a permanent installation of his work opened at the Chinati Foundation in Marfa, Texas. Donald Judd died in 1994.